oncology

Stretching for cancer survivors is helpful to maintain muscle health – particularly after surgery [A how-to guide]

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Stretching is essential for many reasons in maintaining health & wellness. It can be done by anyone, at any time – and is very easy to do, and it is alright if you are unsure as I will show you how in this post. In general, the main benefits attained from stretching include:

  • Increased flexibility or Range of Motion (ROM)
  • Reduced likelihood of injury
  • Improved benefits when completing aerobic & resistance exercise

Before I go on, I would just like to let you know, I have created a new Facebook page called Exercise Cancer Community: Health & Wellness, to create a supportive environment for people to share their experiences. Please visit the page, click the Like button on the side of this page or on the FB site and pass it on.


Now, stretching is important for basically anybody to maintain or improve their physical health, but it is particularly important for cancer survivors who have undergone treatment such as a surgery. For example, women with breast cancer who have undergone a mastectomy tend to experienced reduced should flexibility, strength & mobility due to muscle and tendon tissue damage. In fact, here is a great article by Dr Robert Kilgour displaying that home-based stretching can assist in reversing these results, as published in the Journal of Breast Cancer Research Treatments. By engaging in stretching exercises (and eventually resistance training exercises), you will be able to achieve a level of health pre-surgery, or even greater. But if not, simple daily tasks around the house such as reaching into cupboards above the head, discomfort whilst driving or picking up a baby may become challenging.

Here is an example of a "spider-crawl" or "wall walk", where you slowly raise your arm up the wall to the level of your range (not to pain)

Here is an example of a “spider-crawl” or “wall walk”, where you slowly raise your arm up the wall to the level of your range (not to pain)

Before I show you individual stretches, here are the guidelines for stretching:

  • Stretches can be done daily or most days of the week (can do them up to 3-5 times/day)
  • Hold each stretch for 15-30 seconds
  • Repeat each stretch 1-3 times on each side
  • Have a deep breath in when commencing the stretch
  • Only complete the stretch to the full range of your joint (and not to a painful point)
  • Stretching is most effective when the muscles are warm, so after a walk is perfect

Here we go: If you are only a few weeks post surgery (1-3 weeks), you may consider doing “range of motion” exercises, that is just moving your joints to their point, and not pushing further.

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Above: Shoulder flexion & extension

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Above: Shoulder abduction

If these are simple, then lets move on to more stretches for the upper body:

Chest stretch:

  • Arm at 90 degrees against a wall, with forearm on the wall
  • Rotate body away from wall & hold

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Shoulder stretch:

  • Arm across the body
  • Other hand presses the elbow closer to the body & hold

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 Triceps stretch (only if your flexibility allows you to do so):

  • Arm above and behind your head, with elbow in the air
  • Hand above your opposite shoulder
  • Using your other hand, pull the elbow across your body & hold

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 Biceps & forearm stretch:

  • Arm directly in front, with fingers facing downwards
  • Using opposite hand, pull the fingers back & hold

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Do you see how simple some of these are? Definitely can be done at the office, in an elevator or at home! I constantly will be doing stretches to help aid my training sessions in the gym and at soccer around the office. Now here are some lower body stretches to do for the lower body:

Calf stretch:

  • Place hands on the wall
  • Take a step backwards with one leg, with foot placed flat on the ground
  • Bend the front leg, straighten the back leg and feel the stretch

With both feet flat, act as if you are trying to push the wall down. You should feel this in the back of your behind leg

Hamstring stretch:

  • (seated or on a yoga mat) put one leg out as straight as you are able to
  • Lean towards your foot, with your hands together
  • Aim to keep your back straight
  • Point your toe backwards for a greater stretch
  • Resistance bands can also be used for a greater stretch
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If less mobile, use a chair for support

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If you are more mobile and have progressed your flexibility, try a greater stretch using a resistance band

 Quadriceps stretches:

  • Find a stable object for support (wall, table, exercise bike!)
  • Grab your foot of the leg you are stretching
  • Keep legs in-line with each other and pull until you feel a stretch
  • You can also use a resistance band or rope around your foot to assist if you have limited flexibility

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Remember, every day you can partake in stretching, and before you know it, you will be improving your flexibility in no time. Combine this with your aerobic and resistance exercise and you are on your way to achieving a fantastic lifestyle.

Keep up the great work and please remember to provide encouragement to those in need, pass this resource on and keep continuing to send me questions and personal experiences.

 

Your Exercise Physiologist,

David

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Home-based Strengthening Exercises for Cancer Survivors

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Resistance training, or strength training utilises muscle contractions to build up strength by repeating the movements. Particularly during and after cancer treatment, you generally lose a lot of muscle strength and do not return to pre-existing levels. Think about where you used to be. Building up strength with resistance training will assist in getting you there. There are numerous benefits when completing strength training programs that have been shown in exercise-oncology studies and some of these have been listed as:

Other benefits have also been displayed in improved balance (reduced falls risk), sleep quality, pain levels and anxious feelings. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that strength training should be completed 2-3 times per week for most cancers.

Strength training also does not need to be in a gym, which is a common off-putter for a lot of the general population, but everybody is different. If you have access to weights in a gym, I definitely recommend participating in a weights program, but if not, I have written this post to demonstrate that strength training can be safely and cheaply completed in the comfort of your own home.

The above video introduces the use of resistance bands, which can replace expensive weights (and can also travel on holidays with you! I did this on my tour of the United Kingdom!!). Depending on your strength levels, you can start on a light band, and work your way up to the more challenging ones, and they often come in packages which is good for when you get stronger – here is a link I found to purchase resistance bands but there are plenty more types on sites like Amazon.

I have also put together examples of strength training exercises using these resistance bands and body weight exercises, that assists in attaining the benefits offered by resistance training.

Strength exercises for the arms: 

Strength exercises for the back: 

Strength exercises for the chest:

Strength exercises for the legs (beginners):

and for advanced

So in a general rule of thumb, we will aim for around 10 repetitions for each set of exercises. You can do each exercise 2-3 times with a 1 minute rest in between which may give you a program that looks like this (and take approx 20-30 mins):

Exercise        Repetitions  Sets  Rest

Sit to Stand               10              2-3     60s

Bicep Curl                 10              2-3     60s

Chest press               10              2-3     60s

Standing row           10              2-3     60s

Tricep push              10              2-3     60s

Upright row             10              2-3     60s

And a basic summary for you all:

I put it to you, to give this simple, whole body program a shot, at least 2-3 times per week for the next few weeks and see how you go. Stand in front of a mirror so you can monitor your technique and compare to the videos.

After just a few weeks, you will be able to adapt, and rebuild your muscle strength that you may have lost with treatment. You never know, you may even be able to surpass your strength and ability from before your treatment. I have seen this first hand from some women in my ovarian cancer studies who loved doing strength training and made it a part of their normal weekly habits. They loved not having to rely on anybody else and able to partake in activities they had not done in years.

resistance bands1

Let me know how you go!

Also, click follow on the side to subscribe and feel free to pass this onto somebody who you believe will benefit from re-gaining their strength, small steps at a time.

 

David Mizrahi

Accredited Exercise Physiologist – Exercise Oncology Australia

@Davemiz_EP

d.mizrahi@unsw.edu.au

 

 

 

 

Presenting ovarian cancer & physical activity research at the ESSA conference, Adelaide

Every two years sees the national Exercise & Sports Science Australia (ESSA) conference held, which brings together about a thousand researchers, clinicians, academics and some amazing presenters to discuss the latest in physical activity research, clinical guidelines and the opportunity to collaborate and bring forward great ideas to move the field forward and create the best possible outcomes for our patients.

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The highlights of this conference for me were:

* Prof Daniel Green – why exercise is better for the cardiovascular system than we first believed

* Prof Graham Kerr – Exercise in patients with neurodegenerative disorders

* Dr Kim Bennell – exercise as therapy for osteoarthritis

* A/Prof Lorimer Moseley – Exercise for the patient with chronic pain

These talks were inspirational and I managed to learn some great information. However, this conference was also more special for me as I was fortunate enough to present my research on exercise for women with advanced ovarian cancer.

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It was a great environment to discuss my findings, in which these patients who were undergoing chemotherapy who exercised for more than 90 minutes/week had reduced fatigue, slept better, improved quality of life, were stronger and had less anxiety.

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I also had a poster viewing session, which was a great way to interact with other researchers. Here I met an expert in chronic pain, Matthew Jones, and he was able to give me insight into how he helps to reduce pain by exercising in young healthy people, something of massive interest we seek to investigate in the future for cancer survivors.

I also managed to attend some great presentations of colleagues and experts in the field:

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Dr Fiona Naumann (above) spoke on the complex considerations for exercise physiologists working with cancer survivors, Carolina Sandler gave great insight to the Post-Cancer Fatigue experienced by survivors, and how exercise therapy can help manage this, whilst Simon Rosenbaum discussed his research improving the mental health issues for patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

In terms of cancer & exercise research, there was also other great talks on reducing side-effects of Prostate cancer treatment by Brad Wall and Tina Skinner, and a pre-surgery exercise program by Andrew Murnane. Anna Meares OAM, olympic medalist for cycling also presented her amazing story of recovering from a fractured neck vertibrae only to return and win a silver medal at the London games.

 

Overall, it was a fantastic few days – and to top it off, I was very surprised and honoured to be awarded a research award for my work.

 

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Check out the Twitter feed for the ESSA conference #ESSA14 

 

Now, I return to Sydney with a whole range of new ideas, more potential researchers to do further work with as I set the bar high with what we can achieve and assist as many future survivors as we can.

 

Please add me on twitter, ask questions, share our quest with other survivors, follow and most of all, just get out there and get active! We are here to help!

Your exercise physiologist,

David

Twitter – @Davemiz_EP

E-mail – d.mizrahi@unsw.edu.au

exerciseoncologyaustralia.wordpress.com

 

Weekly walking challenge

Welcome everybody today, I hope this blog has been helpful in inspiring and motivating people throughout their journeys to take that step and engage in healthy lifestyles. 

I would firstly like to say that today is an important day for me, I have just submitted my thesis on my previous 2 years of work with the ovarian cancer ladies in Sydney, so I am a very happy camper! But that will not stop me writing!

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So I am feeling good and celebrated with a gym weights session, an indoor soccer match and a yum home-cooked dinner. 

I would like put forward to everyone here, a weekly exercise challenge. Now I must stress here, I cannot give specific targets to individuals without having a good chat with you, but I can provide general recommendations, such as the ones released by the American Cancer Society below:

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Moderate intensity = heart rate/breathing rate increases so having a conversation is challenging

Vigorous intensity = working hard enough that you cannot sustain conversation.

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Lets aim for moderate intensity. 150 minutes we can break up throughout the week, so we are generally looking at 30 minute walks on 5 days per week. But if its been a while since you’ve gone out there, try 10-15 minute sessions first and build up. You can do it.

Now to keep you accountable, keep an activity diary and fill it in daily like the one below:

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Simple. So you can plan and try a match/beat your previous weeks. I did this with the women in my study and once in a nice routine, they could increase their programs and make it more challenging.

Give it a week and see how you go, aim for that 150 for the week. Here’s how mine may look for the week 

Mon – indoor soccer pm (40 min)

Tues – gym weights (40 min)

Wed – run/cycle (30-40 min)

Thurs – gym weights (40 min)

Fri – rest

Sat – rest (or light jog on Bondi Beach)

Sun – Soccer match – 90 mins

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Now I do play a fair amount of sport, but a goal of mine – and a goal of YOURS is to AVOID inactivity. try avoid having too many days in the week with no exercise, even small walks are beneficial to how you may start to feel.

As a reminder, here are some of the possible benefits from partaking in regular exercise from the American Cancer Society:

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Get out there, small walks at a time and build up.

 

Now please get back to me with how you went as it would be great to encourage other survivors with your efforts! (comments or e-mails!)

 

As always, please share this with a loved one, or encourage a friend to walk, or like this page and tell yourself you can do it – because you can!

 

David

Exercise physiologist, blogger, researcher, soccer player

E: d.mizrahi@unsw.edu.au

Twitter: @davemiz_EP

My 2013 adventures around the world talking about the benefits of exercise at cancer conferences

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2013 was a big year for me. I managed to present my research involving ovarian cancer patients at 3 conferences, I spoke at 5 different hospitals in Sydney as well as 3 patient support groups. I am 100% happy to put my work aside so I can take these opportunities, as it is very important for patients, clinicians, families, nurses and the general public to be aware of how something as simple as walking can actually help a cancer patient.

The year started off with a trip to Adelaide, Australia for the Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer Survivorship conference. This was a great opportunity and and interesting mix. Half of the delegates were medicos (doctors, nurses, allied health staff) whilst the other half were cancer survivors/patients/advocates – So all in all it was a really nice dynamic. This was my first conference presenting this research, so naturally I was a little bit nervous. The main points of the poster above were:

* ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemo were asked to achieve 90+ mins/week of exercise for 12 weeks – They could do it!

* Their sleep improved

* Their fatigue reduced

* Their quality of life increased

* Their muscular strength increased

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I actually got some great exposure from this conference. I had oncologists from around Australia asking me what they should be encouraging their patients to do, and also some amazing cancer survivors telling me of their experiences with trying to remain active. I simply encouraged them, keep up what you are doing and every week try and out-do what you did last week. “A little bit longer in duration, a little bit higher in intensity and you will reap the benefits.”

Next stop – Liverpool, United Kingdom – the home of the Beatles, Liverpool or Everton Football Club (depending who you are speaking to), lack of sun and many a pub.

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The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Conference. What an experience this was. Over 3000 medical folk, a handful of Australians, in which I did not know any and a lot of great research presentations from top European doctors. This conference was interesting for me, as the majority of topics were related to drug or surgical administration, and minimal on complementary medicines such as exercise, diet or psychological interventions – which are all extremely valuable to the well-being of each patient. This was a good thing for me, as my work was more unique, and again I had decent interest from people around the world. So many European doctors were telling me they didnt have the funds to employ an exercise physiologist or a physiotherapist in their hospitals. My response – educate the patient on the importance on remaining active during and after treatment. They will listen to you. That is it, a couple of sentences will provide encouragement.

Image(my abstract at the bottom underneath all the very complex medical trials)

In this conference I spoke about the relationship between physical activity and sleep quality for ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemo. Firstly, they dont sleep well at all. So i monitored them with this high tech GPS device to track their sleep quality for a week. Turns out, of the participants who were more active than the others, they actually slept better. This is important because more sleep -> less fatigue -> more energy -> less anxiety -> higher quality of life = good news.

However, it was a great experience and a lot of hard work. Hard work means hard play – so naturally, being on the other side of the world, I thought it was only fair I could have some down time

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Image(me enjoying delicious Manchester pub lunch, visiting the Cavern in Liverpool – where Beatles played their gigs, giving a fake press conference at Arsenal’s Emirates Stadium and seeing Arsenal play vs Chrystal Palace at Selhurst Park, London).

Back on a long plane ride to Sydney (26 hrs) and straight to Adelaide again for the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia conference.

ImageNow this picture was taken of me in front of my poster during the networking function, in which a couple of glasses of wine were consumed compounded with my jetlag from the UK and I guess I was just being silly.

Nonetheless, this was another great conference for me. This time I spoke about what were the reasons holding patients back from exercising – the barriers. In a nutshell, the main reason for not exercising for fatigue. Now, I get that. But when there is evidence showing engaging in exercise will reduce your fatigue, you would wish to give it a go. The patients who were exercising more in this study, reported less fatigue again. A trend appears to be going on. Other reasons for not exercising was that it was not a priority and procrastination was an issue. If you have read my previous articles showing exercise can increase life expectancy, reduce recurrence risk and improve countless symptoms, I think it IS a priority and I dont think procrastination should be a word in your vocabulary anymore.

These were amazing experiences. Now i set up 2014 with a more meetings, conferences and patient support group talks ahead of me, I am full of excitement for what this year has to come. If I have an audience of 1 person or 150 people, it does not matter to me, as long as the message gets through. You can do it, one step at a time.

David

The Benefits of Exercise during Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

After receiving an overwhelming response for my recent post “Exercise to increase overall survival and reduce disease recurrence”, I was able to get in touch with some amazing people who were implementing positive healthy behaviours into their journey.

I would like to commend one poster, who during radiotherapy, despite having leg muscle impairments, was exercising 30-45 minutes daily, doing weights, yoga, physio and meditation – and feeling great!! Great inspiration. She gave me the idea to speak about exercise during radiotherapy (RT).

Common side-effects of RT are fatigue, pain, shoulder instability, cardiac damage and reduced quality of life. The majority of these I have previously mentioned will be improved by engaging in aerobic physical activity. An article published in 2008 by Ji Hyi Hwang in South Korea worked with breast cancer patients after surgery, who were about to commence RT.

Protocol:

Exercise consisted of 3x 50 minute sessions a week for 5 weeks

Each 50 minute session consisted of:

10 minute warm up

30 minutes exercise (treadmill walking, cycling, strength exercises, shoulder stretching)

10 minute cool down (relaxation)

The main results were as follows:

 

Exercise RT

 

On each figure, the left bars indicate the non-exercising control groups – who experienced reduced quality of life, increased fatigue and worse pain

The right bars indicate the exercising group – who experienced IMPROVED quality of life, IMPROVED fatigue and HIGHER pain threshold. This is a two-fold swing right here. Furthermore, the exercising group had better upper arm flexibility – which is vital to be able to continue doing normal activities at home – driving, washing, going to shops, lifting things etc!

Here is the link below to the article:

http://synapse.koreamed.org/Synapse/Data/PDFData/0069YMJ/ymj-49-443.pdf

If you or somebody you know is undergoing or about to undergo radiotherapy, provide support, ask them to go for a walk with you. Go at their pace, doesnt matter how fast, it is better than nothing. Once confident and building endurance, then you can start to go faster and you will start embracing some of the great benefits. Walking is safe and does not require supervision. If you wish to have a weights program prescribed to you, consider speaking with your physiotherapist, or certified exercise physiologist

As always, please comment, ask questions, go for a walk, share this blog with a friend or family member, follow me and stay positive.

David

Your exercise physiologist – Exercise Oncology Australia

Exercise to increase overall survival and reduce disease recurrence

I’d like to speak today about a great article published in 2006 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, one of the top ranking oncology journals titled “Impact of Physical Activity on Cancer Recurrence and Survival in Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer” by Jeffery Meyerhardt. The study used patients with Stage 3 Colon cancer 6 months after chemotherapy treatment.

The study first asked patients how much activity they were engaging in per week. Each type of activity has an intensity, where a higher intensity allows for more energy exertion. The terminology used is called a MET or metabolic equivalent – so when we are resting, we exert 1 MET, brisk-walking is 4.5 METs or swimming is 7 METs.   I’ve included a table from the article below:

MET exercise intensities

As I’ve mentioned previously, “more is better than less and some is better than none”. This is a good place to start. Once you can get into a rhythm of regular exercise, it is time to train for longer and add in some challenging sessions.

What this study found was really interesting, and is a reason why there is more research in exercise oncology studies. Patients who engaged in at least 18 MET-hours/week (approx 6 hrs of normal pace walking or 1.5 hrs of running or 2.5 hrs of tennis per week) had a 47% improvement on disease-free survival than inactive patients. This is HUGE! The table below shows the survival rates by different levels of activity

reduced mortality

Personally, I think this is really ground breaking, with more and more oncologists now wishing to have their patients participating in exercise studies. There is emerging hard evidence, this isnt just fluff and games. Get out there and start to move, walk, shake that body. One step at a time. You can do it.

Here is the link to the article:

http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/24/22/3535.full.pdf+html

As always, please feel free to comment, share, like, follow me, ask questions or just go out for a long walk after reading this. 

Exercising during chemotherapy – you can do it!!

From what i’ve seen and heard from patients, chemotherapy is one of the toughest parts of cancer treatment. 6 months of hospital visits, sleepless nights, nausea, fatigue and uncertainty. Then walks into the clinic David, the Exercise Physiologist, every week to see if there are any new patients he can ask to come and join his studies..

Every week for all of last year, I would visit 2 hospitals in Sydney, each on two mornings per week to see if there were any patients eligible to recruit into my trials. Women with recurrent ovarian cancer undergoing chemo to be precise. This is a group of patients who’s cancer has returned and spread, requiring higher doses of chemo and as a result, having worse side-effects of treatment. This was the first study to date to include this patient group – so it was very challenging but exciting at the same time to try and assist these patients throughout treatment.

Here are some things we do know during chemotherapy:

* Patients (and their families) tend to  withdraw themselves during chemo (6 months of inactivity!)

* You may become weaker during this time, along with additional side-effects of treatment

* Recent exercise studies have displayed safety, as well as countless psychological and physical benefits

* Reaching recommended physical activity guidelines can decrease your risk of cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality by more than a third!

Back to my recruitment. I would speak with numerous patients about their lifestyles, the majority not doing anything due to excessive fatigue – with nearly all of them not knowing how exercise can help them. I had about a 50% uptake rate, which is about normal for studies such as these, with many women not willing to commit to a 3 month study. However I did not mind, I still provided them with advice and encouragement to walk whenever they can and build up their endurance during chemo.

Now to the ones that did join the study, firstly I did baseline health checks, with most of them having physical and mental function, low muscle strength and excessive fatigue – not surprising. Everyone received a different exercise program tailored to their needs and goals, but started at 90 minutes/week (about 15-20 mins/most days of the week). This would be a combination of aerobic exercise (mainly walking and gym cycling) and resistance training (gym weights and resistance bands). It was not without its challenges for these amazing women. Here is an example week for one:

Monday – walk 20 mins (including hills)

Tuesday – theraband resistance session – 25 mins

Wednesday – chemo day – light morning walk – 15 mins

Thursday – rest day (feeling ill)

Friday – rest day (feeling ill)

Saturday – rest day/light walk 15 mins

Sunday – resistance exercises and walk – 30 mins

No week would really be the same depending on how they responded to the treatment, but i’ll tell you this now, if they hadnt been exercising, they would be feeling a whole lot worse. Im very happy with a week looking like this if possible.

If you’re undergoing chemo – you can do it. Don’t aim for a marathon, set a realistic aim at giving it a go – because you can achieve that. 10 minute walks around the block will assist in alleviating the fatigue and sets a platform to increase this. Some is better than none and more is better than less. The aim is 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity exercise (increased breathing rate). But if you can only achieve half of this amount, that is more than fine, it is a start. You cant progress if you haven’t started. If you havent started your journey, let it start now….one step at a time.

I hope these posts provide support, motivation and guidance. Feel free to ask any questions or comments and again please forward to a friend or family member undergoing the cancer experience.

So you or somebody you know has been diagnosed with cancer – When do you start to exercise?

So you’ve been diagnosed with cancer and you want me to exercise?! I heard this frequently when I approached ovarian cancer patients in chemotherapy clinics to participate in my research. I would sometimes sit for hours in the waiting rooms just to wait for a two minute conversation with a patient, in the hope to assist them to become more active.

I have no doubt that being diagnosed with cancer and having treatment is one of the most challenging things a person can ever go through, and without having cancer myself, i cannot act like I know what they are going through. However, what I do know – an emerging field of exercise oncology – the majority of patients, families and a lot of doctors do not know about. More and more support has been given by oncologists to tell their patients to be active and get moving, when in the past they were wrapped in cotton wool and told to rest. In fact, this has been shown in prospective studies for patients when asked how much they exercised, the ones who engaged in more, lived for longer.

Now going back to the original theme of when do you start to exercise? before or after surgery? during chemo? after chemo?

The answer is now.

Think of it this way – the healthier your body is from being active, the better you will recover from surgery, the stronger you will be during chemo and the more likely you will be back and feeling normal after treatment.

I’ve spoken with oncologists from around Australia and the world and I have told them exactly that. There have been studies for patients before surgery, during chemo and radiotherapy and after treatment, all showing benefits from increased aerobic activity (walking, cycling, aqua aerobics etc) and resistance training (weights).

The time to be active is now.

A 5 minute walk around the block a day to start your regime. Next week aim at 10 minutes a day. The week after aim at 15 minutes. Before you know it, you have a larger endurance capacity, more energy and vitality again. Believe you can do it, because you can.

In my next post, I will give some insight to my work with women with ovarian cancer, who were involved in an exercise study whilst undergoing chemo. Ovarian cancer generally has a really tough outlook, but with some great courage and determination, I was able to work with a lot of amazing people who were able to reach some fantastic goals.

Please feel free to pass this blog onto any cancer survivor.

“Some is better than none, more is better than less”

It is common for cancer patients to reduce their physical activity during and after cancer treatment. It is also common for many patients to experience side effects such as debilitating fatigue, poor sleep, anxiety and reduced quality of life. However, emerging research has shown that the type and amount of exercise will influence what benefits are possible. The most common type is aerobic exercise, anything getting the heart rate higher. This could be walking, cycling, jogging or aqua aerobics.

Generally, the harder you work, the fitter and healthier your heart and other organs become. Resistance training is a type of exercise that promotes muscle and bone health by lifting against force. Types of resistance exercise can be with body weight (squats, pushups etc.), resistance bands or weights. Resistance training is very important for re-gaining strength during a time when there has been a large decline. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise (30 minutes on most days of the week) and two sessions of resistance exercise.

I will write posts on exercise oncology studies by cancer site, today I will go over a few studies completed in patients with breast cancer:

Post menopausal breast cancer survivors improved their cardiac function and quality of life by cycling 3 times a week for 40 minutes in a study in 2008 by Kerry Courneya. A walking intervention during radiation therapy by Mock in 1997 demonstrated reductions in fatigue and anxiety, as well as improvements in sleep quality. Another study by McNeeley in 2006 of patients during chemotherapy showed that aerobic training improved self esteem and reduced body fat, whilst resistance training improved self-esteem, muscular strength and lean body mass. Lymphedema was not worsened in any of these studies, in fact there was even mild improvements in the condition. This is not the first study of patients exercising during chemotherapy and radiation therapy, with more and more emerging every year showing not only that exercise is safe, but there are numerous benefits.

At a recent cancer conference in Adelaide in which I presented a study I ran for patients with advanced ovarian cancer, I met another researcher, Dr Sandi Hayes from Queensland University, who does some amazing work with patients around Australia. I remember she mentioned a quote that really stuck with me that she has used to help motivate patients who are enduring tough times. Some is better than none, more is better than less. Not reaching the recommended guidelines is not the be all and end all, but any amount of physical movement is a start and something to build up on. A 5 minute walk in the morning, 5 minutes at night – not a whole lot, but something to build on. Some is better than none, more is better than less. Remember it next time.